Manship , Paul Howard Manship considered it a good omen that he was the seventh child of a seventh daughter. He began to draw in emulation of his sister Adeline , but it was particularly his brother Luther who served as an example. Luther earned his living as an engraver though his main interest was painting. His initial decision to pursue a career as a sculptor was largely motivated by his color blindness; he had started out life as a painter. For a painter color blindness is obviously a severe handicap, but for a sculptor it might prove an advantage: Indeed, a great sensitivity to form, to contour, and to line was to prove one of Manship’s major strengths. By the age of nineteen, Paul Manship had saved enough from his work as a freelance illustrator and designer to head for New York City where he immediately enrolled at the Art Students League. His sculpture teacher there was Hermon Atkins MacNeil , the first of several sculptors trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts with whom Manship was to study. Soon after his arrival in New York, Manship also found a position as an assistant to Solon Borglum , who was working on two major equestrian monument commissions at the time. During his apprenticeship with Borglum, Manship worked almost exclusively on animal figures, developing proficiency with this subject that would serve him well on later commissions.
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See Article History Alternative Titles: This advisory role has been largely taken over by other bodies, but the academy is still an important representative of French science on the international stage. Although its role is now predominantly honorific, the academy continues to hold regular Monday meetings at the Institut de France in Paris. In the Academy received a formal constitution, in which six subject areas were recognized:
The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.
After publishing his dissertation in , he published his groundbreaking incompleteness theorems in , on the basis of which he was granted his Habilitation in and a Privatdozentur at the University of Vienna in Among his mathematical achievements at the decade’s close is the proof of the consistency of both the Axiom of Choice and Cantor’s Continuum Hypothesis with the Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms for set theory, obtained in and , respectively.
Other publications of the s include those on the decision problem for the predicate calculus, on the length of proofs, and on differential and projective geometry. All of these events were decisive in influencing his decision to leave Austria in , when he and his wife Adele emigrated to the United States. He would remain at the Institute until his retirement in The initial period of his subsequent lifelong involvement with philosophy was a fruitful one in terms of publications: The latter paper coincided with results on rotating universes in relativity he had obtained in , which were first published in an article entitled:
Social Science History: Society and Science History TimeLine
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background It has been argued that science and society are in the midst of a far-reaching renegotiation of the social contract between science and society, with society becoming a far more active partner in the creation of knowledge. On the one hand, new forms of knowledge production are emerging, and on the other, both science and society are experiencing a rapid acceleration in new forms of knowledge utilization.
Concomitantly since the Second World War, the science underpinning the knowledge utilization field has had exponential growth.
An innovating concept: scientific speed dating For two hours, the youngsters have met with about scientists, sharing one-to-one informal discussions. Every 7 minutes, a gong would ring and the youngsters would start a new conversation with another researcher.
The Internet Journal of Neurosurgery. Abstract A steady series of advances in physics, mathematics, computers and clinical imaging science have progressively transformed diagnosis and treatment of neurological and neurosurgical disorders in the years between the discovery of the X-ray and the advent of high resolution diffusion based functional MRI.
The story of the progress in human terms, with its battles for priorities, forgotten advances, competing claims, public battles for Nobel Prizes, and patent priority litigations bring alive the human drama of this remarkable collective achievement in computed medical imaging. Background Atkinson Morley’s Hospital is a small Victorian era hospital building standing high on a hill top in Wimbledon, about 8 miles southwest of the original St.
George’s Hospital building site in central London. On October 1, Godfrey Hounsfield and Jamie Ambrose positioned a patient inside a new machine in the basement of the hospital turned a switch and launched the era of modern neurosurgery and neuroimaging. Everything that neurosurgeons had learned about diagnosis and surgical planning before that first scan was totally transformed by that event. What came together on that remarkable fall day, was a confluence of mathematics, science, invention, clinical medicine, and industrial resources that all arrived at that one time and place in a dramatic and powerful way.
From a number of points of view, that first scan was no surprise to those who made it.
M. J. Everhart’s Marine Reptile References:
Rhabopelix longispinis, Cope Cope, E. Notes on the geology of the survey for the extension of the Union Pacific Railway, E. Review Printing House, Philadelphia, 76 p. The fossil reptiles of New Jersey. The American Naturalist, 1: Remarks on a new enaliosaurian, Elasmosaurus platyurus.
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History[ edit ] A heroic depiction of the activities of the Academy from The Academy of Sciences traces its origin to Colbert’s plan to create a general academy. He chose a small group of scholars who met on 22 December in the King’s library, and thereafter held twice-weekly working meetings there. The first 30 years of the Academy’s existence were relatively informal, since no statutes had as yet been laid down for the institution.
In contrast to its British counterpart , the Academy was founded as an organ of government. The Academy was expected to remain apolitical, and to avoid discussion of religious and social issues Conner, , p. Following this reform, the Academy began publishing a volume each year with information on all the work done by its members and obituaries for members who had died. This reform also codified the method by which members of the Academy could receive pensions for their work.
Among the exceptions was Dominique, comte de Cassini , who refused to take his seat. Membership in the Academy was not restricted to scientists:
H.J. Lutcher Stark Center
Mauritshuis , The Hague Art historians have equated certain globular highlights of light-toned paint found in many of Vermeer’s paintings with circles of confusion that the artist presumably have observed through a camera obscura. It must be assumed that once Vermeer had understood how the disks of confusion are produced by the camera obscura and how to imitate them with paint, he employed them with considerable artistic license in order to enhance the effect of light as it plays upon natural surface.
Although Dutch painters experimented with a number of techniques to represent highlights , which are key to creating the illusion of light conditions usually intense , on shiny surface textures , only Vermeer adopted circular highlight in a methodical manner. Perhaps the only other instance in Dutch painting of such highlights are those on a pair of slippers in the foreground of Gabriel Metsu ‘s — Woman Reading a Letter, a picture that was likely inspired by Vermeer himself.
Fink “Vermeer’s Use of the Camera Obscura:
A series of experiments dating from led to a redetermination of the velocity of light by Fizeau’s method, for which Cornu was awarded the La Caze Prize of the Académie des Sciences and the Rumford Medal of the Royal Society of London in
This is followed, inevitably, by statistics from Baghdad’s version of the county morgue. But those figures just strike me as utterly meaningless as a measure of “violent death” in Baghdad or Iraq pre-war. There was plenty of violent death to go around in Saddam’s Iraq that was kept off the books, as we know now hat tip, Instapundit. Would it be so difficult for reporters, who are trying to make a legitimate point about street crime, to simply throw in the contextualizing phrase “street crime” when they are discussing this issue, rather then the totalizing phrase “violent death” which just erases all the pain and suffering that was caused by the state as if it never happened?
This number just reemphases for me the importance of this complaint, which I made last Wednesday. I find that rhetorical move profoundly offensive.
French Academy of Sciences
Einstein Explains his Famous Formula. Voice of Albert Einstein, The mass number A is decreased by 4 units; the atomic number Z is decreased by 2 units. Besides a neutrino, whose energy can be arbitrarily low, e decay produces only a neutral atom of the previous element more precisely, the isotope of that element which has the same mass number as the isotope whose decay is being considered.
Thus, an atom can undergo e decay only if it is heavier than the corresponding isotope of the previous element. Besides the antineutrino, whose energy can be arbitrarily small, b- decay produces only a positive ion and an electron whose combined mass is not less than that of a neutral atom.
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We present desiderata and suggestions as well as methods from computational linguistics to systematically apply variety corpora for the enrichment, i. Examples are those variant dictionaries developed by Ammon et al. On the one hand, we conducted a systematic frequency analysis in newspaper variety corpora for approved lists of South Tyrolean special vocabulary in order to possibly refine corresponding dictionary entries with corpus evidence. On the other hand, we filtered the list of words of our South Tyrolean corpus which could not be lemmatised by a tool developed for the variety in Germany.
After removing special vocabulary collected for the South Tyrolean variety in other projects-e. In addition, we semi-automatically extracted lexical cooccurrences of our two newspaper corpora and compared their frequencies-with the assumption that those cooccurrences are worth being more closely investigated that have high frequency in the South Tyrolean corpus and very low frequency in the corpus from Germany. With these three methods we were not only able to refine dictionary entries for South Tyrolean German, but also to add new ones.
The findings on variants can be re-used for further corpus annotation resulting in again better resources for computational variant lexicography of the kind described, which is also to be extended to more complex linguistic levels. Each corpus contains , words with a multilayer annotation in different linguistic fields-from morphology to pragmatics.
AnCora-Verb lexicons focuses on syntactic functions, arguments and thematic roles of each verbal predicate taking into account the verbal semantic class and those alternations in diathesis where the predicate can participate. This paper concentrates on the definition and characterization of verb classes and the criteria followed in the assignment of a verb to a specific class. Computational lexicographty and Reports on lexicographical projects, bordering on yet another, the dictionary-making process.